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Title: Initial Results from Boron Powder Injection Experiments in WEST Lower Single Null L-mode Plasmas
Contributors: Bodner, Grant
Gallo, Alberto
Diallo, Ahmed
Lunsford, Robert
Moreau, Philippe
Nagy, Alex
Pellissier, Francis-Pierre
Guillemaut, Christophe
Gunn, James
Bourdelle, Clarisse
Desgranges, Corinne
Manas, Pierre
Bortolon, Alessandro
Klepper, Christopher
Tsitrone, Emanuelle
Unterberg, Ezekial
Vermare, Laure
Department of Energy
Keywords: Wall conditioning
Powder injection
Issue Date: 2022
Publisher: Princeton University
Related Publication: Bodner et al. 2022 Nucl. Fusion accepted
Abstract: Using a recently installed impurity powder dropper (IPD), boron powder (< 150 μm) was injected into lower single null (LSN) L-mode discharges in WEST. IPDs possibly enable real-time wall conditioning of the plasma-facing components and may help to facilitate H-mode access in the full-tungsten environment of WEST. The discharges in this experiment featured Ip = 0.5 MA, BT = 3.7 T, q95 = 4.3, tpulse = 12–30 s, ne,0 ~ 4×1019 m-2, and PLHCD ~ 4.5 MW. Estimates of the deuterium and impurity particle fluxes, derived from a combination of visible spectroscopy measurements and their corresponding S/XB coefficients, showed decreases of ~ 50% in O+, N+, and C+ populations during powder injection and a moderate reduction of these low-Z impurities (~ 50%) and W (~ 10%) in the discharges that followed powder injection. Along with the improved wall conditions, WEST discharges with B powder injection observed improved confinement, as the stored energy WMHD, neutron rate, and electron temperature Te increased significantly (10–25% for WMHD and 60–200% for the neutron rate) at constant input power. These increases in confinement scale up with the powder drop rate and are likely due to the suppression of ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence from changes in Zeff and/or modifications to the electron density profile.
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