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Title: Solution-processing of chalcogenide materials for device applications
Authors: Zha, Yunlai
Advisors: Arnold, Craig
Contributors: Electrical Engineering Department
Subjects: Materials Science
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Princeton, NJ : Princeton University
Abstract: Chalcogenide glasses are well-known for their desirable optical properties, which have enabled many infrared applications in the fields of photonics, medicine, environmental sensing and security. Conventional deposition methods such as thermal evaporation, chemical vapor deposition, sputtering or pulse laser deposition are efficient for fabricating structures on flat surfaces. However, they have limitations in deposition on curved surfaces, deposition of thick layers and component integration. In these cases, solution-based methods, which involve the dissolution of chalcogenide glasses and processing as a liquid, become a better choice for their flexibility. After proper treatment, the associated structures can have similar optical, chemical and physical properties to the bulk. This thesis presents an in-depth study of solution-processing chalcogenide glasses, starting from the "solution state" to the "film state" and the "structure state". Firstly, chalcogenide dissolution is studied to reveal the mechanisms at molecular level and build a foundation for material processing. Dissolution processes for various chalcogenide solvent pairs are reviewed and compared. Secondly, thermal processing, in the context of high temperature annealing, is explained along with the chemical and physical properties of the annealed films. Another focus is on nanopore formation in propylamine-processed arsenic sulfide films. Pore density changes with respect to annealing temperatures and durations are characterized. Base on a proposed vacancy coalescence theory, we have identified new dissolution strategies and achieved the breakthrough of pore-free film deposition. Thirdly, several solution methods developed along with the associated photonic structures are demonstrated. The first example is "spin-coating and lamination", which produces thick (over 10 μm) chalcogenide structures. Both homogeneous thick chalcogenide structures and heterogeneous layers of different chalcogenide glasses or metals can be fabricated. Second, "micro-molding in capillaries" (MIMIC) and "micro-transfer molding" (μTM) methods are introduced for fabricating waveguides on flat and curved surfaces. The flexibility of the solution process allows waveguides to be patterned, for the first time, on a curved surface. Third, "micro channel filling" is demonstrated to produce the lowest loss among solution-processed chalcogenide waveguides. These results contribute to the advancement of chalcogenide processing technologies and help move closer towards the ultimate goal of fabricating reliable IR sensors.
Alternate format: The Mudd Manuscript Library retains one bound copy of each dissertation. Search for these copies in the library's main catalog
Type of Material: Academic dissertations (Ph.D.)
Language: en
Appears in Collections:Electrical Engineering

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