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Title: Considerations for Femtosecond Laser Electronic Excitation Tagging in High-Speed Flows
Authors: Peters, Christopher John
Advisors: Miles, Richard B
Contributors: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Keywords: femtosecond laser plasma
kinetics modeling
laser-based diagnostics
molecular tagging velocimetry
Subjects: Aerospace engineering
Plasma physics
Issue Date: 2019
Publisher: Princeton, NJ : Princeton University
Abstract: Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) is an unseeded method for molecular tagging which offers valuable opportunities for measurement of high-speed (transonic, supersonic or hypersonic) flows. The unique nature of high-speed testing demands certain performance from FLEET such as satisfactory signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at depressed static conditions (i.e., low temperatures, pressures and densities), wide dynamic range for velocity determination (especially single-shot), and measurements with acceptable accuracy and precision. This dissertation strives to evaluate FLEET in those regards and provide strategies to maximize the method's capabilities. A zero-dimensional kinetics model in nitrogen explains FLEET signal changes with pressure/density and/or temperature in terms of plasma-chemical reactions. Poorly known rate coefficients are tuned by comparing model output to measurements, with temporal agreement up to several hundred nanoseconds. Modeling reveals that initial signal peaks at reduced density because of slowed temporal evolution (and decay) of excited populations. Low temperatures enhance signal by enlarging cluster ion populations which contribute to excited species via electron-ion dissociative recombination. A purpose-built free jet facility provides experimental validation of the kinetics model and assesses FLEET velocimetry in low temperature and pressure/density conditions. Signal, lifetime, accuracy and precision results are obtained from unheated subsonic through Mach 4.0 operation of the facility, with best results noted. FLEET measurements of a sweeping jet (SWJ) actuator in compressible operation showcase its advantages in a highly unsteady jet containing subsonic through supersonic velocities. FLEET velocimetry is performed in the device's internal and external flow fields, with the latter compared to hot-wire anemometry. Internal measurements reveal the absence of shockwaves theorized to occur at high pressure ratios. Simultaneous qualitative measurements of compressible jet mixing are shown as a proof-of-concept. Overall, the work demonstrates that previous understanding of SWJ incompressible operation readily extends into the compressible realm. Practical aspects of performing FLEET velocimetry are detailed, along with strategies for improving measurement quality. Determination of a fundamental precision in nitrogen and air is attempted. Experiments show that increasing time delay and/or SNR improves velocimetry precision. A comparison of five camera systems indicates sensors with larger pixels capture higher SNR data and produce more precise results.
Alternate format: The Mudd Manuscript Library retains one bound copy of each dissertation. Search for these copies in the library's main catalog:
Type of Material: Academic dissertations (Ph.D.)
Language: en
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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