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Title: Hyperdiffusion of dust particles in a turbulent tokamak plasma
Contributors: Nespoli, Federico
Kaganovich, Igor
Autricque, Adrien
Marandet, Yannick
Tamain, Patrick
Keywords: plasma turbulence
Issue Date: Jul-2021
Publisher: Physics of Plasma
Abstract: The effect of plasma turbulence on the trajectories of dust particles is investigated for the first time. The dynamics of dust particles is computed using the ad-hoc developed Dust Injection Simulator code, using a 3D turbulent plasma background computed with the TOKAM3X code. As a result, the evolution of the particle trajectories is governed by the ion drag force, and the shape of the trajectory is set by the Stokes number $St\propto a_d/n_0$, with $a_d$ the dust radius and $n_0$ the density at the separatrix. The plasma turbulence is observed to scatter the dust particles, exhibiting a hyperdiffusive regime in all cases. The amplitude of the turbulent spread of the trajectories $\Delta r^2$ is shown to depend on the ratio $Ku/St$, with $Ku\propto u_{rms}$ the Kubo number and $u_{rms}$ the fluctuation level of the plasma flow. These results are compared with a simple analytical model, predicting $\Delta r^2\propto (Ku/St)^2t^3$, or $\Delta r^2\propto (u_{rms}n_0/a_d)^2t^3$. As the dust is heated by the plasma fluxes, thermionic emission sets the dust charge, originally negative, to slightly positive values. This results in a substantial reduction of the ion drag force through the suppression of its Coulomb scattering component. The dust grain inertia is then no longer negligible, and drives the transition from a hyperdiffusive regime towards a ballistic one.
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