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Title: Electrical Manipulation of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon and Germanium
Authors: Sigillito, Anthony James
Advisors: Lyon, Stephen A
Contributors: Electrical Engineering Department
Keywords: Electron Spin Resonance
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
Silicon Qubits
Stark Effect
Superconducting Resonators
Subjects: Physics
Quantum physics
Condensed matter physics
Issue Date: 2017
Publisher: Princeton, NJ : Princeton University
Abstract: Many proposals for quantum information devices rely on electronic or nuclear spins in semiconductors because of their long coherence times and compatibility with industrial fabrication processes. One of the most notable qubits is the electron spin bound to phosphorus donors in silicon, which offers coherence times exceeding seconds at low temperatures. These donors are naturally isolated from their environments to the extent that silicon has been coined a "semiconductor vacuum". While this makes for ultra-coherent qubits, it is difficult to couple two remote donors so quantum information proposals rely on high density arrays of qubits. Here, single qubit addressability becomes an issue. Ideally one would address individual qubits using electric fields which can be easily confined. Typically these schemes rely on tuning a donor spin qubit onto and off of resonance with a magnetic driving field. In this thesis, we measure the electrical tunability of phosphorus donors in silicon and use the extracted parameters to estimate the effects of electric-field noise on qubit coherence times. Our measurements show that donor ionization may set in before electron spins can be sufficiently tuned. We therefore explore two alternative options for qubit addressability. First, we demonstrate that nuclear spin qubits can be directly driven using electric fields instead of magnetic fields and show that this approach offers several advantages over magnetically driven spin resonance. In particular, spin transitions can occur at half the spin resonance frequency and double quantum transitions (magnetic-dipole forbidden) can occur. In a second approach to realizing tunable qubits in semiconductors, we explore the option of replacing silicon with germanium. We first measure the coherence and relaxation times for shallow donor spin qubits in natural and isotopically enriched germanium. We find that in isotopically enriched material, coherence times can exceed 1 ms and are limited by a single-phonon T1 process. At lower frequencies or lower temperatures the qubit coherence times should substantially increase. Finally, we measure the electric field tunability of donors in germanium and find a four order-of-magnitude enhancement in the spin-orbit Stark shift and confirm that the donors should be tunable by at least 4 times the electron spin ensemble linewidth (in isotopically enriched material). Germanium should therefore also be more sensitive to electrically driven nuclear magnetic resonance. Based on these results germanium is a promising alternative to silicon for spin qubits.
Alternate format: The Mudd Manuscript Library retains one bound copy of each dissertation. Search for these copies in the library's main catalog:
Type of Material: Academic dissertations (Ph.D.)
Language: en
Appears in Collections:Electrical Engineering

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