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Title: Fundamental and Applied Studies in Nanoparticle Biomedical Imaging, Stabilization, and Processing
Advisors: Prud'homme, Robert K
Contributors: Chemical and Biological Engineering Department
Keywords: biomedical imaging
drug delivery
flash nanoprecipitation
long wavelength
Subjects: Nanoscience
Materials Science
Chemical engineering
Issue Date: 2015
Publisher: Princeton, NJ : Princeton University
Abstract: Nanoparticle carrier systems are gaining importance in the rapidly expanding field of biomedical whole animal imaging where they provide long circulating, real time imaging capability. This thesis presents a new paradigm in imaging whereby long wavelength fluorescent or photoacoustically active contrast agents are embedded in the hydrophobic core of nanocarriers formed by Flash NanoPrecipitation. The long wavelength allows for improved optical penetration depth. Compared to traditional contrast agents where fluorophores are placed on the surface, this allows for improved signal, increased stability, and molecular targeting capabilities. Several types of long wavelength hydrophobic dyes based on acene, cyanine, and bacteriochlorin scaffolds are utilized and animal results obtained for nanocarrier systems used in both fluorescent and photoacoustic imaging modes. Photoacoustic imaging is particularly promising due to its high resolution, excellent penetration depth, and ability to provide real-time functional information. Fundamental studies in nanoparticle stabilization are also presented for two systems: model alumina nanoparticles and charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles. Motivated by the need for stable suspensions of alumina-based nanocrystals for security printing applications, results are presented for the adsorption of various small molecule charged hydrophobes onto the surface of alumina nanoparticles. Results are also presented for the production of charge stabilized polystyrene nanoparticles via Flash NanoPrecipitation, allowing for the independent control of polymer molecular weight and nanoparticle size, which is not possible by traditional emulsion polymerization routes. Lastly, methods for processing nanoparticle systems are explored. The increasing use of nanoparticle therapeutics in the pharmaceutical industry has necessitated the development of scalable, industrially relevant processing methods. Ultrafiltration is particularly well suited for concentrating and purifying macromolecular suspensions. Processing parameters are defined and optimized for PEGylated nanoparticles, charge stabilized latices, and solutions of albumin. The fouling characteristics are compared and scale-up recommendations made. Finally, a pilot scale spray drying system to produce stable nanocrystalline powders of highly crystalline drugs which cannot be stably formulated by traditional spray drying methods is presented. To accomplish this, a novel mixing device was developed and implemented at pilot scale, demonstrating feasibility beyond the lab scale.
Alternate format: The Mudd Manuscript Library retains one bound copy of each dissertation. Search for these copies in the library's main catalog
Type of Material: Academic dissertations (Ph.D.)
Language: en
Appears in Collections:Chemical and Biological Engineering

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