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Title: Density effects on turbulent boundary layer structure: from the atmosphere to hypersonic flow
Authors: Williams, Owen
Advisors: Smits, Alexander J
Contributors: Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department
Keywords: Boundary layer
Fluid dynamics
Particle Image Velocimetry
Stable atmosphere
Subjects: Aerospace engineering
Atmospheric sciences
Mechanical engineering
Issue Date: 2014
Publisher: Princeton, NJ : Princeton University
Abstract: This dissertation examines the effects of density gradients on turbulent boundary layer statistics and structure using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Two distinct cases were examined: the thermally stable atmospheric surface layer characteristic of nocturnal or polar conditions, and the hypersonic bounder layer characteristic of high speed aircraft and reentering spacecraft. Previous experimental studies examining the effects of stability on turbulent boundary layers identified two regimes, weak and strong stability, separated by a critical bulk stratification with a collapse of near-wall turbulence thought to be intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. To examine the characteristics of these two regimes, PIV measurements were obtained in conjunction with the mean temperature profile in a low Reynolds number facility over smooth and rough surfaces. The turbulent stresses were found to scale with the wall shear stress in the weakly stable regime prior relaminarization at a critical stratification. Changes in profile shape were shown to correlate with the local stratification profile, and as a result, the collapse of near-wall turbulence is not intrinsic to the strongly stable regime. The critical bulk stratification was found to be sensitive to surface roughness and potentially Reynolds number, and not constant as previously thought. Further investigations examined turbulent boundary layer structure and changes to the motions that contribute to turbulent production. To study the characteristics of a hypersonic turbulent boundary layer at Mach 8, significant improvements were required to the implementation and error characterization of PIV. Limited resolution or dynamic range effects were minimized and the effects of high shear on cross-correlation routines were examined. Significantly, an examination of particle dynamics, subject to fluid inertia, compressibility and non-continuum effects, revealed that particle frequency responses to turbulence can be up to an order of magnitude smaller than estimates made using a standard shock response test. The effect of over-large tripping devices was also found to increase the wake strength of the mean velocity profile as well as freestream turbulence. A final assessment of the data reveals that Morkovin scaling collapses the streamwise turbulence profiles with DNS at the same Mach number. Wall-normal turbulence measurements remain compromised by limited particle frequency response.
Alternate format: The Mudd Manuscript Library retains one bound copy of each dissertation. Search for these copies in the library's main catalog
Type of Material: Academic dissertations (Ph.D.)
Language: en
Appears in Collections:Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

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