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Title: Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions
Authors: Krueger, Alan B.
Keywords: class size
education production function
random assignment
Issue Date: 1-May-1997
Citation: Quarterly Journal of Economics, Volume 114, Issue 2, May 1999
Series/Report no.: Working Papers (Princeton University. Industrial Relations Section) ; 379
Abstract: This paper analyzes data on 11,600 students and their teachers who were randomly assigned to different size classes from kindergarten through third grade. Statistical methods are used to adjust for non-random attrition and transitions between classes. The main conclusions are: (1) on average, performance on standardized tests increases by 4 percentile points the first year students attend small classes; (2) the test score advantage of students in small classes expands by about one percentile point per year in subsequent years; (3) teacher aides and measured teacher characteristics have little effect; (4) class size has a larger effect for minority students and those on free lunch; (5) Hawthorne effects were unlikely.
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